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According to Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung, the libido is identified as psychic energy.Duality (opposition) creates the energy (or libido) of the psyche, which Jung asserts expresses itself only through symbols: "It is the energy that manifests itself in the life process and is perceived subjectively as striving and desire." (Ellenberger, 697) Defined more narrowly, libido also refers to an individual's urge to engage in sexual activity, and its antonym is the force of destruction termed mortido or destrudo.

According to her, testosterone levels rise gradually from about the 24th day of a woman's menstrual cycle until ovulation on about the 14th day of the next cycle, and during this period the woman's desire for sex increases consistently.

The 13th day is generally the day with the highest testosterone levels.

Biologically, the sex hormones and associated neurotransmitters that act upon the nucleus accumbens (primarily testosterone and dopamine, respectively) regulate libido in humans.

Social factors, such as work and family, and internal psychological factors, like personality and stress, can affect libido.

Although the last days of the menstrual cycle are marked by a constant testosterone level, women's libido may boost as a result of the thickening of the uterine lining which stimulates nerve endings and makes a woman feel aroused.

Also, during these days, estrogen levels also decline, resulting in a decrease of natural lubrication.

Freud developed the idea of a series of developmental phases in which the libido fixates on different erogenous zones—first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing), then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in controlling his or her bowels), then in the phallic stage, through a latency stage in which the libido is dormant, to its reemergence at puberty in the genital stage.

Freud pointed out that these libidinal drives can conflict with the conventions of civilised behavior, represented in the psyche by the superego.

However, the levels of testosterone increase at menopause and this may be why some women may experience a contrary effect of an increased libido.

Certain psychological or social factors can reduce the desire for sex.

Although some specialists disagree with this theory, menopause is still considered by the majority a factor that can cause decreased sex desire in women.

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